A globe depicting Earth's continents and oceans Overview of Earth Sciences

Globe of Earth

A globe depicting Earth's continents and oceans


Earth Sciences encompass the study of Earth, its physical composition, structure, and the processes that shape it. This field of science often intersects with Physics, Chemistry, and Biology.


Geology is the study of Earth's physical structure and its history. It examines rocks, minerals, and the processes that have shaped the Earth's surface and interior.

Geological Strata

Geological strata showing layers of rocks


Meteorology focuses on the Earth's atmosphere and the weather conditions it generates. It's a crucial field for understanding climate change and natural disasters like hurricanes and tornadoes.


Oceanography is the study of the Earth's oceans and their physical and biological components. This field is crucial for understanding climate systems, marine life, and sea-level changes.

Marine Ecosystem

An underwater scene with marine life

Environmental Science

Environmental science investigates the interactions between human activities and the natural world. This often includes studying pollution, conservation, and the impact of climate change.


Seismology is the study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth. It provides important insights into the Earth's internal structure and the tectonic forces that shape it.


Paleontology involves studying fossils to understand past life on Earth. It often intersects with Biology and Evolution.


Climatology studies long-term weather patterns and their global or regional implications. It is often considered a subfield of Meteorology.

Climate Data

Graphs and charts depicting climate data


Astrogeology is an interdisciplinary field that applies geological principles to the study of celestial bodies, linking Earth sciences with Astronomy.


Earth Sciences are essential for understanding our planet and how it interacts with living organisms. For further exploration, check out the Overview of Science or return to the main Encyclopedia Overview.